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Heel pain is a very common foot complaint and may involve injury to the bone, fat pad, ligaments, tendons or muscles.
The most common cause of heel pain is plantar fasciitis. This is a condition where your main arch ligament (fascia) becomes inflamed and causes pain.
Plantar fasciitis can develop into a heel spur (calcaneal spur) over time when your fascia healing is delayed and bone is laid down in response to excessive through the injured soft tissue. Heel spurs are often related to flat feet or pes planus.
Achilles heel issues can be caused by the attachment of your Achilles tendon onto your heel. This can be due to tendonitis or a related Achilles tendinopathy. While not necessarily painful a ruptured Achilles tendon causes functional limitation such as an inability to rise on your toes, walk or run.
Peroneal tendonitis is a common lateral heel condition that is due to altered foot biomechanics or hind-foot control issues. Medially (inside of your heel) another tendinopathy known as tibialis posterior tendinopathy can cause heel pain.
Bursitis is another source of heel pain. In particular, retrocalcaneal bursitis is common. It can cause pain in between your Achilles tendon, and heel.
Heel pain can also be associated with conditions such as posterior impingement syndrome, which is common in dancers or athletes who need to plant their foot eg cricket fast bowlers. It can also occur in any athlete with a relatively unstable ankle eg poorly rehabilitated sprained ankle.
Your heel pain can arise from osteoarthritis affecting the subtalar joint or talocrural (ankle) joint.
Bone injuries such as a fracture can occur from a trauma such as a fall from a height onto your heel. Athletes, especially runners and landing sports, can also suffer overload fractures known as a calcaneal stress fracture.
Sever's disease is a very common source of children's heel pain. Sever's is related to overactivity and overloading of the calcaneal growth plate.
It is important to have you in thoroughly assessed to ensure an accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Heel pain can also be referred by a pinched nerve in your lower back eg sciatica. This can be tricky to diagnose and requires the professional opinion of an experienced spinal health care practitioner such as your physiotherapist.
Anyone can suffer from heel pain, but certain groups seem to be at increased risk, including:
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